SABAH FORESTRY DEPARTMENT

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

The USM SFMP area home to the largest home/habitat of orangutans (the Bornean endemic Pongo pygmaeus morio) in North-eastern Borneo. It is here where the largest population of orangutans is found. They number some 5,000 individuals (Ancrenaz et al, 2005), which accounts to about half of the total orangutan population of Sabah. The USM SFMP area constitutes part of the largest remaining Malaysian unfragmented forested block in Sabah (Yayasan Sabah concession), which if managed conscientiously, will play a major role in harboring what may be the highest numbers of large Bornean mammals at present. This area is an important refuge for key wildlife species. Proper wildlife and habitat management is important for the long-term population viability of these animals.

The wildlife monitoring activities were carried out at two types of habitat, namely less disturbed forest at Malua Forest Reserve and heavily disturbed forest at Bukit Piton Forest Reserve (Figure 1). From the past FMP, both areas recorded sighting of rare threatened and endangered species under Malaysian National Interpretation which is fall under HCV 1 (Species Diversity). The monitoring methods were based on comprehensive field manual of monitoring large terrestrial mammals in Sabah by Ancrenaz (2013) and others related field manual. Amongst wildlife monitoring that were carried out as follows:

1. Opportunistic sighting
2. Night survey
3. Morning survey
4. Bird monitoring
5. Ground Orangutan nest census
6. Hornbill monitoring
7. Camera trapping
8. Saltlick monitoring

 

Figure 1: Locations of wildlife monitoring activities in 2018

 

Ground Orang-utan Nest Census

In 2018, results from the ground orangutan nest census shows that the orangutan densities range within Malua FR and Bukit Piton Rehabilitation Project area or between 1.59 - 5.07 individual/km2, and most nests were spotted on the medium size trees and lower crowns of dominant trees i.e. pioneer species (Figure 2 and Figure 3).

Figure 2: Map presented the five (5) different locations of study sites for ground Orang-utans nest census within Ulu Segama-Malua Sustainable Forest Management project area

Figure 3: The fluctuations of Orang-utan densities per KM² across five (5) different study sites within Ulu Segama – Malua Sustainable Forest Management project area (Malua forest reserve and Bukit Piton Rehabilitation project area)

 

Opportunistic Wildlife Sightings (Adhoc)
In 2018, at least six (6) large terrestrial mammals more frequently sighting (came across) and most of species sighting known as threatened under IUCN red list criteria such Bornean pygmy elephant, Bornean Orangutan, Pig tailed macaque, Sambar deer and bearded pig. Sambar deer most common species and can be sighting easier along the main road especially at night.

Currently, 58 species of large terrestrial mammals with 24 families were identified still existence within Ulu Segama-Malua SFM project area. Based on Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 classification, eight (8) of the species recorded known as totally protected such as Bos javanicus, Helarctos malayanus, Nasalis larvatus, Neofelis nebolusa, Pongo pygmaeus mario, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Elephas maximus and Sunda pangolin. More than 40 species recorded under schedule II (protected species-limited hunting with license) and eight (8) species recorded under schedule III (protected species hunting with license).

While based on IUCN red list criteria, 36.21% (or n=21) of species are classified as “Threatened Species” (5.17% or critically endangered, 12.07% endangered and 18.97% vulnerable), 60.34% of wildlife species recorded as “Low Risk” (46.55% least concern and 13.79% near threatened) and 3.45% wildlife species recorded as “Data Deficient” (Figure 4 and Figure 5).

 

Figure 4: Percentage (%) of wildlife species (terrestrial mammals) recorded in accordance to three (3) criteria under IUCN red list, the numbers based on wildlife monitoring activities carried out in year 2017

Figure 5: Status in IUCN red list and percentage of terrestrial wildlife species recorded along wildlife monitoring activities carried out within Ulu Segama-Malua SFM project area since 2009 to 2018

 

Images of orang-utan (top left); storm stork (top right); Large green pigeon (bottom left) and Common palm civet (bottom right) were sighted within Malua Forest Reserve

Night and Morning Survey

In 2018, morning and night observation activities show that the sighting of threatened wildlife species was low, less than 1 sighting ranging between 0.007 – 0.028 detections/day and 0.002 – 0.040 detections/day respectively (Figure 6 and Figure 7).
Based on morning direct sighting (physical), we found that the ungulates species such as Sambar Deer and Bearded Pig and some primates species namely North Borneo Gibbon and Pig tailed macaque are four (4) dominant and common species sighted within Malua, while Bornean Orangutan and Pig tailed macaque are two (2) species dominant and frequent sighted within Bukit Piton Forest Reserve (see Figure 6). While for nightspot activity, Sambar deer is the highest sighting per day/kilometre in Malua, whereas Bearded Pig more frequently sighted within Bukit Piton Rehabilitation project area (see Figure 7).

 

Figure 6: Patterns of some “threatened species” detections (average detection per day/km) during morning drive activity carried out within two (2) different habitat treatments in USM SFM project area for year 2018

Figure 7: Trend of some threatened species sighting per day/km in accordance to nightspot activity within to USM SFM project area in year 2017, at least six (6) wildlife species classified as “threatened species” under IUCN red list criteria were recorded

 

 

Images of Slow loris (left) and Sambar deer (right) were sighted during nightspot and morning drive within Malua Forest Reserve

Bird Survey

There is no new species recorded in year 2018. The survey mainly focus at Malua and Bukit Piton forest reserve (see Figure 8). Currently, a total about 177 bird species were recorded since the first FMP, and based on the IUCN red list criteria (retrieved 2nd October 2019), 6.21% or n=11 species recorded classified as threatened such as Helmeted hornbill, Storm’s stork, Black crowned pitta, Blue headed pitta, Bornean wren babbler, Scaly-breasted Partridge, Great slaty woodpecker, Large billed blue flycatcher, Large green pigeon, Short toed coucal and Wallace's hawk eagle (see Table 1), and 93.79% or n=166 species categorized as low risk under IUCN criteria (see Figure 9)

Figure 8: Location of bird survey in Malua Forest Reserve and Bukit Piton Forest Reserve

Table 1: Number of bird species recorded within the Malua Forest Reserve and Bukit Piton Rehabilitation project area and status each species based on IUCN red list criteria, retrieved 22nd March 2018

Common Name Scientific Name Family IUCN Red List
Helmeted hornbill Buceros vigil Bucerotidae Status: Critically Endangered ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Storm's stork Ciconia stormi Ciconiidae Status: Endangered ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Black and crimson pitta
(Black crowned pitta)
Pitta venusta Pittidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Blue headed pitta Pitta baudii Pittidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Bornean wren babbler Ptilocichla leucogrammica Timaliidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Chestnut necklaced partridge
(Scaly-breasted Partridge)
Arborophila charltonii Phasianidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Great slaty woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus Picidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Large billed blue flycatcher Cyornis caerulatus Muscicapidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Large green pigeon Treron capellei Columbidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Short toed coucal Centropus rectunguis Cuculidae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing
Wallace's hawk eagle Nisaetus nanus Accipitridae Status: Vulnerable ver 3.1
Pop. trend: decreasing

Figure 8: Fractions and percentage of bird species recorded within the Ulu Segama – Malua Sustainable Forest Management project area under IUCN red list criteria in 2017

Figure 9: Percentage of bird’s species recorded within Ulu Segama – Malua Sustainable Forest Management project area under IUCN red list criteria in 2018 (Retrieved 2nd October 2019)