The HCV definitions under the HCVRN (2013): Intact forest landscapes and large landscape-level ecosystems and ecosystem mosaics that are significant at global, regional or national levels, and that contain viable populations of the great majority of the naturally occurring species in natural patterns of distribution and abundance.

Findings on HCV Attribute

Though the forest of USM experienced series of anthropogenic, forest fire and timber extraction disturbances that leads to various regenerative qualities, retaining the whole FMU under conservation zones is the best effort in maintaining the forest ecosystem function as forest corridor for plant dispersal and wildlife movement. With the application of rigorous forest silvicultural exercise and forest structural diversity restoration activities, it is envisaged that the forest ecosystem function for the physical and biological environment will maintain or perhaps become better over time. USM, with a massive area of 242,886 ha and totally protected area, forms a critical link of the largest eastern forest landscape that support critical connectivity of lowland areas, including undisturbed natural forest of Danum Valley Forest Reserve, to the central forest landscape that also consist of several key protected areas, such as Northern Gunung Rara, Malubok, Northern Kuamut that eventually link to two other undisturbed forest known as Imbak Canyon and Maliau Basin forest reserves (Figure 3). Due to high presence of high conservation value flora and fauna in the reserve, it is important to protect and enhance the forest ecosystems in its natural setting.

Justification of HCV Area

The management indicates that USM project area is categorised as HCV 2 due to their location to form part of continuous forested landscape to support high conservation value species in Sabah, with wide ranging species, such as Bornean Pygmy Elephant and Clouded Leopard (Figure 1).

Potential Threats

Encroachment - Illegally clearing of vegetation for agricultural development and wildlife poaching are threats to the ecological well-being of the project area.

Forest Fire - Degraded forest is more susceptible to forest fire during drought. If forest fire occurs, simplification of the forest could have a direct impact to the physical and terrestrial (biological) ecosystem throughout the forest landscape.

Management Implications

Similar as HCV 1 under the pretext of Protected Area, forest protection programme that address the threats of encroachment, poaching and forest fire should be implemented. All surveillance records should be placed in the main base office.


  • Perimeter boundary patrol by ground and aerial surveillance executed by monthly basis
  • Monitoring and control at 9 FCS executed at full time basis
  • Dismantling unnecessary road access (case-by-case)
  • Boundary clearance executed at problematic areas (case-by-case

Figure 1: Map showing the entire Ulu Segama-Malua Sustainable Forest Management Project area is categorised as HCV 2.

Measurable Effectiveness Indicators

The continuous forested landscape which support high conservation value species in Sabah, with wide ranging species, such as Bornean Pygmy Elephant and Clouded Leopard were managed and carried out obligatory actions to enforce the Forest Enactment 1968 and Forest Rule 1969 to ensure the security and protection of the reserve as describe in Forest Protectionand Forest Fire Monitoring.